Adms 3510 Assignment Of Lease
Filed pursuant to Rule 253(g)(2)
File No. 024-10633
OFFERING CIRCULAR DATED DECEMBER 23, 2016
1070 Terra Bella Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
SHARES OF SERIES m PREFERRED STOCK CONVERTIBLE INTO SHARES OF CLASS A COMMON STOCK
SEE “SECURITIES BEING OFFERED” AT PAGE 26
MINIMUM INDIVIDUAL INVESTMENT: 333 Shares $999
|Price Per Share to Public||Total Number of Shares Being Offered||Proceeds to issuer Before Expenses, Discounts and Commissions*|
|Series m Preferred Stock||$3.00||6,666,666||$20,000,000|
An Issuer may raise an aggregate of up to $50 million in a 12-month period pursuant to Tier II of Regulation A of the Securities Act.
The Company expects that the amount of expenses of the offering that it will pay will be approximately $1,706,000, not including state filing fees.
The offering will terminate at the earlier of: (1) the date at which the maximum offering amount has been sold, (2) December 23, 2017, the date that is twelve months from the date this Offering Statement is qualified by the Commission, or (3) the date at which the offering is earlier terminated by the Company in its sole discretion, which may occur at any time. The offering is being conducted on a best-efforts basis without any minimum target. The Company may undertake one or more closings on a rolling basis. After each closing, funds tendered by investors will be available to the Company.
THE UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION DOES NOT PASS UPON THE MERITS OR GIVE ITS APPROVAL OF ANY SECURITIES OFFERED OR THE TERMS OF THE OFFERING, NOR DOES IT PASS UPON THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF ANY OFFERING CIRCULAR OR OTHER SOLICITATION MATERIALS. THESE SECURITIES ARE OFFERED PURSUANT TO AN EXEMPTION FROM REGISTRATION WITH THE COMMISSION; HOWEVER THE COMMISSION HAS NOT MADE AN INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION THAT THE SECURITIES OFFERED ARE EXEMPT FROM REGISTRATION.
GENERALLY NO SALE MAY BE MADE TO YOU IN THIS OFFERING IF THE AGGREGATE PURCHASE PRICE YOU PAY IS MORE THAN 10% OF THE GREATER OF YOUR ANNUAL INCOME OR NET WORTH. DIFFERENT RULES APPLY TO ACCREDITED INVESTORS AND NON-NATURAL PERSONS. BEFORE MAKING ANY REPRESENTATION THAT YOUR INVESTMENT DOES NOT EXCEED APPLICABLE THRESHOLDS, WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO REVIEW RULE 251(d)(2)(i)(C) OF REGULATION A. FOR GENERAL INFORMATION ON INVESTING, WE ENCOURAGE YOU TO REFER TO .
This offering is inherently risky. See “Risk Factors” on page 5.
Sales of these securities will commence on approximately December 23, 2016.
The Company is following the “Offering Circular” format of disclosure under Regulation A.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
In this Offering Circular, the term “Knightscope,” “we,” “us,” “our” or “the Company” refers to Knightscope, Inc.
THIS OFFERING CIRCULAR MAY CONTAIN FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INFORMATION RELATING TO, AMONG OTHER THINGS, THE COMPANY, ITS BUSINESS PLAN AND STRATEGY, AND ITS INDUSTRY. THESE FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS ARE BASED ON THE BELIEFS OF, ASSUMPTIONS MADE BY, AND INFORMATION CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TO THE COMPANY’S MANAGEMENT. WHEN USED IN THE OFFERING MATERIALS, THE WORDS “ESTIMATE,” “PROJECT,” “BELIEVE,” “ANTICIPATE,” “INTEND,” “EXPECT” AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS ARE INTENDED TO IDENTIFY FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS, WHICH CONSTITUTE FORWARD LOOKING STATEMENTS. THESE STATEMENTS REFLECT MANAGEMENT’S CURRENT VIEWS WITH RESPECT TO FUTURE EVENTS AND ARE SUBJECT TO RISKS AND UNCERTAINTIES THAT COULD CAUSE THE COMPANY’S ACTUAL RESULTS TO DIFFER MATERIALLY FROM THOSE CONTAINED IN THE FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS. INVESTORS ARE CAUTIONED NOT TO PLACE UNDUE RELIANCE ON THESE FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS, WHICH SPEAK ONLY AS OF THE DATE ON WHICH THEY ARE MADE. THE COMPANY DOES NOT UNDERTAKE ANY OBLIGATION TO REVISE OR UPDATE THESE FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS TO REFLECT EVENTS OR CIRCUMSTANCES AFTER SUCH DATE OR TO REFLECT THE OCCURRENCE OF UNANTICIPATED EVENTS.
Knightscope develops and deploys advanced physical security technology utilizing autonomous robots, analytics and a user interface for patrolling both indoor and outdoor environments. The Company offers its comprehensive suite of technologies on a Machine-as-a-Service (MaaS) business model at an hourly rate significantly below the available alternatives, including human patrol agents and mobile vehicle patrol services. The Company intends to use its “Software + Hardware + Humans” approach to help reduce the enormous negative economic impact of criminal activity on the United States economy, provide significant cost savings, and provide additional capabilities for human guards.
With the assistance of the Knightscope K5 (outdoors) and Knightscope K3 (indoors) Autonomous Data Machines (“ADMs”), the Company’s technology delivers intelligent and mobile “eyes and ears” that assist security and law enforcement professionals in the performance of their duties. ADMs provide a superior level of situational awareness and enforcement capabilities and serve a deterrence function through a commanding physical presence. The ADMs each generate 1 to 2 terabytes of data per week, which can be analyzed for a variety of uses, including identifying environmental anomalies, live monitoring, or forensics. Over time, analysis of the data collected by ADMs is also intended to enhance the navigation capacities of such machines for improved autonomous and self-driving motion.
The Company’s ADMs have thus far operated “in the field” for over 100,000 hours and the machines-in-network have traveled in excess of 50,000 miles, collectively. In fact, one such ADM has traveled the equivalent distance of a round-trip drive from San Francisco to New York, twice over. ADMs are presently deployed in 10 different cities across the State of California with a total of 15 machines-in-network. ADMs are deployed in a variety of environments including malls, hospitals, corporate campuses and a sports stadium.
The Company’s ADMs operate autonomously, meaning they do not require active remote control, within a geo-fenced area. ADMs provide alerts generated through numerous sensors and the analysis of 360-degree high definition video. As presently deployed, ADMs are capable of detecting people, license plates, signals, and heat thresholds on thermal images. Information gathered by ADMs has a wide range of applications, including analysis of parking utilization rates, parked vehicle dwell times, detection of suspicious Wi-Fi signals at sensitive locations, and detection of environmental hazards. The machines provide two-way live intercom calling and live/pre-recorded audio broadcasts that can be used for a variety of applications, including as a mobile public address system.
Data collected by ADMs is accessible through the Knightscope Security Operations Center (KSOC), an intuitive, browser-based user interface. Clients can recall, review, and save the data for analysis, forensic or archival purposes. In addition, the ADMs can be set on specific patrol schedules and paths in order to most effectively adapt to the patrolling environment. The information is accessible both on desktop and mobile devices. Security professionals can have the power of Knightscope’s technology at their fingertips at any time.
|(1)||Does not include shares issuable upon the exercise of options issued under the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, shares allocated for issuance pursuant to the 2014 Equity Incentive Plan, the 2016 Equity Incentive Plan or outstanding warrants.|
Selected Risks Associated with Our Business
Our business is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including those highlighted in the section titled “Risk Factors” immediately following this summary. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
|We are an early stage company and have not yet generated any profits or significant revenues.|
|We have a limited number of deployments, all of which are in California, and limited market acceptance could harm our business.|
|Our costs may grow more quickly than our revenues, harming our business and profitability.|
|We expect to raise additional capital through equity and/or debt offerings and to provide our employees with equity incentives. Therefore, your ownership interest in Knightscope is likely to continue to be diluted.|
|All of our assets, other than intellectual property, are pledged as collateral to a lender.|
|The loss of one or more of Knightscope’s key personnel, or Knightscope’s failure to attract and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could harm our business.|
|If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and our business may be adversely affected.|
|Our ability to operate and collect digital information on behalf of our clients is dependent on the privacy laws of jurisdictions in which our machines operate as well as the corporate policies of our clients, which may limit our ability to fully deploy our technologies in various markets.|
|We have limited experience in operating our machines in crowded environments and increased interactions may lead to collisions, possible liability and negative publicity.|
|If we cannot raise sufficient funds we will not succeed.|
|The Company is controlled by its officers and other stockholders.|
|There is no current market for any of our shares of stock.|
The SEC requires the Company to identify risks that are specific to its business and its financial condition. The Company is still subject to all the same risks that all companies in its business, and all companies in the economy, are exposed to. These include risks relating to economic downturns, political and economic events and technological developments (such as hacking and the ability to prevent hacking). Additionally, early-stage companies are inherently more risky than more developed companies. You should consider general risks as well as specific risks when deciding whether to invest.
We are an early stage company and have not yet generated any profits or significant revenues.
Knightscope was formed in 2013 and made its first pilot sales in 2015. Accordingly, the Company has a limited history upon which to evaluate its performance and future prospects. Our current and proposed operations are subject to all the business risks associated with new enterprises. These include likely fluctuations in operating results as the Company makes significant investments in research, development and product opportunities, and reacts to developments in its market, including purchasing patterns of customers, and the entry of competitors into the market. We will only be able to pay dividends on any shares once our directors determine that we are financially able to do so. Knightscope has incurred a net loss in the last two fiscal years, and has generated limited revenues since inception. We cannot assure you that we will be profitable in the next three years or generate sufficient revenues to pay dividends to the holders of the shares or meet our debt servicing and payment obligations.
We have a limited number of deployments, all of which are in California, and limited market acceptance could harm our business.
The market for advanced physical security technology is relatively new and unproven and is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. As of the end of October 2016, all of our revenues have come from the services of approximately 21 ADMs, including 3 K3 and 18 K5 machines, deployed at as many as 13 locations in the State of California. Nonetheless, the number of machines in service and their location, varies depending on duration of each customer contract, customer demand and similar factors. Presently, 15 machines-in-network operate in a total of 10 different cities in the State of California. In order to grow our business and extend our market position, we will need to place into service more of the recently-introduced K3 ADMs, expand our service offerings, including by developing the K7 ADM, and expand our presence beyond California. Our ability to expand the market for our products depends on a number of factors, including the cost, performance and perceived value associated with our products and services. Furthermore, the public’s perception of the use of robots to perform tasks traditionally reserved for humans may negatively affect demand for our products and services. Ultimately, our success will depend largely on our customers’ acceptance that security services can be performed more efficiently and cost effectively through the use of our ADMs and ancillary services.
We cannot assure you that we will effectively manage our growth.
Knightscope’s employee headcount and the scope and complexity of our business have increased significantly and Knightscope expects to continue hiring additional employees. The growth and expansion of our business and products create significant challenges for our management, operational, and financial resources, including managing multiple relationships and interactions with users, distributors, vendors, and other third parties. As the Company continues to grow, our information technology systems, internal management processes, internal controls and procedures and production processes may not be adequate to support our operations. To ensure success, we must continue to improve our operational, financial, and management processes and systems and to effectively expand, train, and manage our employee base. As we continue to grow, and implement more complex organizational and management structures, we may find it increasingly difficult to maintain the benefits of our corporate culture, including our current team’s efficiency and expertise, which could negatively affect our business performance.
Our costs may grow more quickly than our revenues, harming our business and profitability.
Providing Knightscope’s products is costly because of our research and development expenses, production costs and need for employees with specialized skills. We expect our expenses to continue to increase in the future as we expand our product offerings beyond the K3 and K5, expand production capabilities and hire additional employees. Historically, Knightscope’s costs have increased each year due to these factors and the Company expects to continue to incur increasing costs, in particular for working capital to purchase inventory, marketing and product deployments as well as costs of customer support in the field. Our expenses may be greater than we anticipate, which would have a negative impact on our financial position, assets and ability to invest further in the growth and expansion of the business. In addition, expansion beyond the state of California will require increased marketing, sales, promotion and other operating expenses. Further, as additional competitors enter our market, we expect an increased pressure on production costs and margins.
We expect to raise additional capital through equity and/or debt offerings and to provide our employees with equity incentives. Therefore, your ownership interest in the Company is likely to continue to be diluted.
In order to fund future growth and development, the Company will likely need to raise additional funds in the future by offering shares of its preferred stock and/or other classes of equity or debt that convert into shares of preferred or common stock, any of which offerings would dilute the ownership percentage of investors in this offering. See “Dilution.” Furthermore, if the Company raises debt, the holders of the debt would have priority over holders of common and preferred stock and the Company may accept terms that restrict its ability to incur more debt.
All of our assets, other than intellectual property, are pledged as collateral to a lender.
Our credit facility contains covenants that limit our ability to engage in specified types of transactions. These covenants limit our ability to, among other things:
A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under the credit facility and permit the lender to cease making loans to us. Upon the occurrence of an event of default under this agreement, the lender could elect to declare all amounts outstanding thereunder to be immediately due and payable. We have pledged a significant portion of our assets, other than our intellectual property, as collateral under our credit facility. If the lender accelerates the repayment of borrowings, we may not have sufficient assets to repay them and we could experience a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
The loss of one or more of Knightscope’s key personnel, or Knightscope’s failure to attract and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could harm our business.
Knightscope currently depends on the continued services and performance of key members of its management team, in particular, its founders, William Santana Li and Stacy Dean Stephens. If we cannot call upon them or other key management personnel for any reason, our operations and development could be harmed. The Company has not yet developed a succession plan. Furthermore, as the Company grows, it will be required to hire and attract additional qualified professionals such as accounting, legal, finance, production, service and engineering experts. The Company may not be able to locate or attract qualified individuals for such positions, which will affect the Company’s ability to grow and expand its business.
If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and our business may be adversely affected.
Knightscope relies and expects to continue to rely on a combination of confidentiality agreements with its employees, consultants, and third parties with whom it has relationships, as well as trademark, copyright, patent, trade secret, and domain name protection laws, to protect its proprietary rights. The Company has filed in the United States various applications for protection of certain aspects of its intellectual property, and currently holds one patent. However, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge proprietary rights held by Knightscope, and pending and future trademark and patent applications may not be approved. In addition, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which we intend to operate in the future. In any or all of these cases, we may be required to expend significant time and expense in order to prevent infringement or to enforce our rights. Although we have taken measures to protect our proprietary rights, there can be no assurance that others will not offer products or concepts that are substantially similar to those of Knightscope and compete with our business. If the protection of our proprietary rights is inadequate to prevent unauthorized use or appropriation by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our service and methods of operations. Any of these events could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.
Our financial results will fluctuate in the future, which makes them difficult to predict.
Knightscope’s financial results have fluctuated in the past and will fluctuate in the future. Additionally, we have a limited operating history with the current scale of our business, which makes it difficult to forecast future results. As a result, you should not rely upon the Company’s past financial results as indicators of future performance. You should take into account the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by rapidly growing companies in evolving markets. Our financial results in any given quarter can be influenced by numerous factors, many of which we are unable to predict or are outside of our control, including:
We may face additional competition.
We are aware of a number of other companies that are developing physical security technology in the United States and abroad that may potentially compete with our technology and services. These or new competitors may have more resources than us or may be better capitalized, which may give them a significant advantage, for example, in offering better pricing than the Company, surviving an economic downturn or in reaching profitability. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against existing or emerging competitors. Additionally, existing private security firms may also compete on price by lowering their operating costs, developing new business models or providing other incentives.
Our ability to operate and collect digital information on behalf of our clients is dependent on the privacy laws of jurisdictions in which our machines operate, as well as the corporate policies of our clients, which may limit our ability to fully deploy our technologies in various markets.
Our ADMs collect, store and analyze certain types of personal or identifying information regarding individuals that interact with the machines. While we maintain stringent data security procedures, the regulatory framework for privacy and security issues is rapidly evolving worldwide and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Federal and state government bodies and agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws and regulations affecting data privacy, which in turn affect the breadth and type of features that we can offer to our clients. In addition, our clients have separate internal policies, procedures and controls regarding privacy and data security with which we may be required to comply. Because the interpretation and application of many privacy and data protection laws are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted or applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our current data management practices or the features of our products. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits and other claims and penalties, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our products, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Additionally, we may become a target of information-focused or data collection attacks and any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, regulations, and policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales, and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the laws, regulations, and policies that are applicable to the businesses of our clients may limit the use and adoption of, and reduce the overall demand for, our products. Privacy and data security concerns, whether valid or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our products, particularly in certain industries and foreign countries. If we are not able to adjust to changing laws, regulations, our business may be harmed.
We have limited experience in operating our machines in crowded environments and increased interactions may lead to collisions, possible liability and negative publicity.
Our ADMs operate autonomously in environments, such as shopping malls and stadiums, that are surrounded by various moving and stationary physical obstacles and by humans. Such environments are prone to collisions, unintended interactions and various other incidents, regardless of our technology. Therefore, there is a possibility that our machines may be involved in a collision with any number of such obstacles. Our machines contain a number of advanced sensors that effectively prevent any such incidents and are intended to stop any motion at the detection of intervening objects. Nonetheless, real-life environments, especially those in crowded areas, are unpredictable and situations may arise in which the machines may not perform as intended. Recent highly publicized incidents of autonomous vehicle and human interactions have focused consumer attention on the safety of such systems.
We continuously test the ADMs in a number of unpredictable environments and continue to improve each model’s obstacle-sensing and crash-prevention technology. Furthermore, the maximum speed of the ADMs does not exceed 3 mph, which is not different from normal human walking pace and is unlikely to lead to any significant damage. However, there can be no assurance that a collision, with property or with humans, will not occur, which could damage the ADM, or lead to personal injury or property damage and may subject us to lawsuits. Moreover, any such incident, even without damage, may lead to adverse publicity for us. Such lawsuits or adverse publicity would negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.
If we cannot raise sufficient funds we will not succeed.
For the past year, we have operated at a net loss. Our net loss for 2015 was $3,392,277. Although we aim to reach profitability within the next 12 to 24 months, if we are unable to raise enough money in this offering and from additional sources, we will be unable to pay the costs needed for us to continue operations. Additional fundraising in the future may be offered at a lower valuation, which would dilute the interest of investors in this offering, or on more favorable terms – for example, debt financing, which could be positioned ahead of the investors in this offering in terms of seniority. Please see “Dilution” for more information.
The Company is controlled by its officers and other stockholders.
The Company’s officers and sole director, in particular, William Santana Li and Stacy Dean Stephens, currently hold a significant portion of the Company’s voting securities, and at the conclusion of this offering will continue to hold a significant portion of the Company’s voting rights. Current stockholders of
There is no current market for any of our shares of stock.
There is no formal marketplace for the resale of the Series m Preferred Stock and the Company currently has no plans to list any of its shares on any over-the-counter (OTC), or similar, exchange. Investors should assume that they may not be able to liquidate their investment for some time, or be able to pledge their shares as collateral.
Dilution means a reduction in value, control or earnings of the shares the investor owns.
An early-stage company typically sells its shares (or grants options over its shares) to its founders and early employees at a very low cash cost, because they are, in effect, putting their “sweat equity” into the company. When the company seeks cash investments from outside investors, like you, the new investors typically pay a much larger sum for their shares than the founders or earlier investors, which means that the cash value of your stake is diluted because all the shares are worth the same amount, and you paid more than earlier investors for your shares.
The following table compares the price that new investors are paying for their shares with the effective cash price paid by existing stockholders, assuming full conversion of preferred stock and full vesting and exercise of outstanding stock options, and based on the assumption that the price per share in this Offering is $3.00. This method gives investors a better picture of what they will pay for their investment compared to the company’s insiders than just including such transactions for the last 12 months, which is what the SEC requires.
|Dates Issued||Issued Shares||Potential Shares||Total Issued and Potential Shares||Effective Cash Price per Share at Issuance or Potential Conversion|
|Series A Preferred Shares||2014-2015||4,200,889||(1)||4,200,889||0.8932|
|Series A Preferred (converted notes)||2014||4,735,126||(1)||4,735,126||0.3317||(5)|
|Series B Preferred Shares||2015-2016||4,322,005||(1)||4,322,005||2.0401|
|Series B Preferred (converted notes)||2016||331,578||(1)||331,578||1.7340||(5)|
|Outstanding Stock Options||Various||2,693,800||(4)||2,693,800||0.4588||(2)|
|Authorized, but unissued stock options||Various||1,748,814||1,748,814||N/A|
|Total Common Share Equivalents||23,768,598||4,541,032||28,309,630||0.5691|
|Investors in this offering, assuming $20 million raised||6,666,666||6,666,666||3.0000|
|Total after inclusion of this offering||30,435,264||4,541,032||34,976,296||1.0324|
|(1)||Assumes conversion of all issued preferred shares to common stock.|
|(2)||Stock option and warrant pricing is the weighted average exercise price of outstanding options and warrants.|
|(3)||Common shares issued for various prices ranging from $0.00 to $0.16 per share. Weighted average pricing presented.|
|(4)||Assumes conversion at exercise price of all outstanding warrants and options.|
|(5)||Convertible notes were converted at a discount to the triggering preferred stock offering. The table presents the effective pricing of the conversion based on the original principal and accrued interest on the note.|
Another important way of looking at dilution is the dilution that happens due to future actions by the company. The investor’s stake in a company could be diluted due to the company issuing additional shares. In other words, when the company issues more shares, the percentage of the company that you own will go down, even though the value of the company may go up. You will own a smaller piece of a larger company. This increase in number of shares outstanding could result from a stock offering (such as an initial public offering, another crowdfunding round, a venture capital round, angel investment), employees exercising stock options, or by conversion of certain instruments (e.g., convertible bonds, preferred shares or warrants) into stock.
If the company decides to issue more shares, an investor could experience value dilution, with each share being worth less than before, and control dilution, with the total percentage an investor owns being less than before. There may also be earnings dilution, with a reduction in the amount earned per share (though this typically occurs only if the company offers dividends, and most early stage companies are unlikely to offer dividends, preferring to invest any earnings into the company).
The type of dilution that hurts early-stage investors most occurs when the company sells more shares in a “down round,” meaning at a lower valuation than in earlier offerings. An example of how this might occur is as follows (numbers are for illustrative purposes only):
|In June 2014, Jane invests $20,000 for shares that represent 2% of a company valued at $1 million.|
|In December, the company is doing very well and sells $5 million in shares to venture capitalists on a valuation (before the new investment) of $10 million. Jane now owns only 1.3% of the company but her stake is worth $200,000.|
|In June 2015, the company has run into serious problems and in order to stay afloat it raises $1 million at a valuation of only $2 million (the “down round”). Jane now owns only 0.89% of the company and her stake is worth only $26,660.|
AP/ADMS 4540 Assignment #2 Answer Key Winter 2016 Question 1 Leasing (20 marks) Your firm needs to either buy or lease $230,000 worth of vehicles. These vehicles have a life of 4 years after which time they are worthless. The vehicles belong in CCA class 10 (a 30% class) and can be leased at a cost of $68,000 a year for the 4 years. The corporate tax rate is 34% and the cost of debt is 10%. There are many more assets in this asset class. The lease payments are made at the beginning of the period. The half year rule is applicable. a) What is the after-tax cost of debt? (1 mark) b) Wh at is the amount of the after-tax lease payment? (1 mark) c) What is the present value of the depreciation tax shield? (1 mark) d) What is the net advantage to leasing? (2 marks) e) The lessor in this case has a tax rate of 35%. What is the net advantage of leasing to the lessor? (4 marks) f) What is the amount of the break-even lease payment to the lessee? (4 marks) g) What is the amount of the breakeven to the lessor? (3 marks) h) Is a lease feasible? (2 marks) i) What should be the tax rate of the lessor so that a lease is feasible? (2 marks) Solution a) After tax discount rate = 10% x (1-0.34)= 6.6% (1 mark) b) After tax lease payment = 68,000 x (1-.34)= $44,880 (1 mark) c) PVCCATS =230,000x 0.3x 0.34 / (0.066+0.30)x (1+0.5x0.066)/(1+0.066) = $62,114.08 (1 mark) d) PV of lease payments = 44,880 x PVIFA (6.6%, 4)=$163,525.38 (1 mark) NAL=230,000 - 62,114.08 -163,525.38 = $4360.54 (1 mark) e) After tax discount rate = 10% x (1-0.35) = 6.5% (1 mark) PVCCATS =230,000 x 0.3 x 0.35 / (0.065+0.30) x (1+0.5x0.065)/(1+0.065) = $64,145 (1 mark) After tax lease payments = 68,000 x (1-.35) = $44,200 PV of lease payments = 44,200 x PVIFA (6.5%, 4) =$161,262.62 NAL (lessor) = -230,000 + 161,262.62 + 64,145 = -$4,592.38 (2 marks) f) NAL = 0 = 230,000-62,114- X x PVIFA (6.6%, 4) X= $45,378.63 (1 mark) Before tax payment = 45,387.63 / (1-0.34) = $69,813 (1 mark)