Ap World History Essays 2012 Olympics
* Special lighting and fireworks effects created the river of molten steel used to “forge” the central Olympic ring;
* A series of winches raised the ring to join with four others “flying” in on cables;
* A shower of sparks was made to erupt from the rings.
Shepperd began designing the sequence in October, working hand-in-hand with the stadium designers whose infrastructure, particularly the network of steel cables in the roof, was crucial to its implementation.
Gathering a small team of technicians and designers, all sworn to secrecy, Shepperd began the process of planning in minute detail how to dismantle the bucolic stage setting and replace it with factories and mills. Boyle called the 15-minute sequence Pandemonium, but there could be no hint of chaos on the stage.
Each movement, from the removal of thousands of square feet of turf to the erection of seven giant chimneys, had to be planned to the last inch and cued with precision.
Shepperd was associate technical director at the opening and closing ceremonies in Athens in 2004, and at the Doha Asian Games in 2006, where he used many of the same crew.
The 41 year-old said: “Technically it was as complex as anything seen at Sydney, Athens or Beijing, but the fact that everyone involved in putting it together was based in the UK made the job so much easier.
“We are all totally thrilled with the end result because it’s totally unique.”
Boyle told his performers “you are creating hell”. But he also emphasised that the Industrial Revolution was a key moment in history, giving birth to democratic movements, such as the Suffragettes and the demand for universal health care.
He told them: “It was monstrous but it changed lives. People, including myself, can read and write thanks to it. The workers of the Industrial Revolution built the cities that are now the settings for every Games.”
Dave Nattriss, 33, a freelance web designer, played one of the factory workers, also helping to change the scenery. He said: “We all had little FM radios with ear pieces. At one point there was an instruction 'if you see any of your friends on fire, just wipe it off and carry on’.”
The sequence was greeted enthusiastically, and was recognised as central to Boyle’s ambition of explaining to the world where Britain came from and who we now think we are.
Frank McDonough, professor of history at Liverpool John Moores University, said the ceremony “reflected the impact of Britain on history and culture in a quirky and stunningly inventive manner”.
How Doyle's vision was achieved
1. Green and Pleasant Land
Danny Boyle’s bucolic vision of Britain dominated the stadium as the ceremony opened. Farmers and milkmaids tended to 70 sheep, 12 horses, 10 chickens, three cows, two goats, 10 ducks, and nine geese while a cricket match and a maypole dance went on. At 9.09pm the 40ft tall model of an oak, left, made of steel and fibreglass, was lifted by a winch. Inside were two spiral staircases, which allowed the actors and dancers dressed as the new working class to emerge into the stadium and go to “work” as the Industrial Revolution, bottom left, began.
The whole scene was built on a stage erected between 5ft to 11.5ft above the concrete base of the stadium, above, and under which the volunteers and technical crew waited. On it was built a set with 20ft lengths of turf — both real and artificial. In total 79,071 sq ft of real grass was laid on the stage. In the scene change from rural to industrial Britain, 26,156 sq ft was removed.
3. Industrial Revolution
From trap doors beneath the stage, above, giant factory chimneys began to rise, top. These chimneys, ranging from 80 to 100ft, were made of inflatable fabric painted to look like grey- brickwork. They were blown up, like bouncy castles, by high-pressure fans. The crew below stage kept them straight using winches, while trapeze artists did the same using a series of gears and pulleys attached to the steel wire rope strung across the roof of the stadium. On the stage floor “factory hands” pulled levers to give the impression they were being raised by mechanical means.
4. Dark Satanic Mills
When the turf was stripped away it also revealed a 1ft 11 inch-wide raised steel trough, along which a river of “molten steel” was poured, dragged, hammered and smoothed by factory hands wearing welding goggles. In fact the 100ft river of steel was created by using amber light emitting diodes lit in sequence to give the effect of molten metal, with boxes containing pyrotechnics and smoke creating sparks and steam. The steel “flowed” into a 39ft diameter circular trough, from which an aluminium ring was raised by 36 winches.
5. Birth of the New
To create the spectacular meeting of rings in the shape of the Olympic symbol the first ring was raised 328ft into the air. Moments later another four rings, which had been previously hidden above the stadium roof, “flew” across the arena to join the central ring. When they were all in position, pyrotechnics were triggered by computer to create first a 15-second shower of silver sparks, followed by a 15-second shower of gold sparks. The 40-strong crew beneath were protected from the blinding light and heat of the sparks by fireproof overalls and welders’ caps and goggles. The LED units inside each of the rings were created by Brighton-based Howard Eton Lighting.
6. Looms and steam engines
At the same time, looms and models of Bessemer steam engines appeared on stage to create the choking, dust-filled atmosphere of the dark satanic mills. Around the engines, ranks of workers re-enacted the factory day with hammers, brushes and shovels.
The five engines were assembled from light aluminium steel and wood by 10 professional stage crew members below stage and two above, accompanied by two volunteers. The 32ft long by 9ft wide engines were named after the northern industrial towns of Accrington, Burnley, Cleethorpes, Doncaster and Eccles. Four battery-operated looms, each 15ft tall, were driven up ramps onto the stage, where weavers and machinists pretended to operate them.
"2010 Olympics" redirects here. For the Youth Olympics, see 2010 Summer Youth Olympics.
"Vancouver 2010" redirects here. For the video game, see Vancouver 2010 (video game). For the Winter Paralympics, see 2010 Winter Paralympics.
The 2010 Winter Olympics logo, named Ilanaaq the Inukshuk
|Host city||Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada|
|Motto||With glowing hearts/|
Des plus brillants exploits
|Athletes participating||2,566 (1044 women, 1522 men)|
|Events||86 in 7 sports (15 disciplines)|
|Opening ceremony||February 12|
|Closing ceremony||February 28|
|Officially opened by|
Governor GeneralMichaëlle Jean, Viceregal representative of the Queen of Canada
|Athlete's Oath||Hayley Wickenheiser|
|Judge's Oath||Michel Verrault|
|Olympic Torch||Catriona Le May Doan, Steve Nash, Nancy Greene, Wayne Gretzky|
|Stadium||BC Place Stadium|
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XXIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) and commonly known as Vancouver 2010, informally the 21st Winter Olympics, was a major international multi-sport event held from 12 to 28 February 2010 in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the surrounding suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University Endowment Lands, and in the nearby resort town of Whistler. Approximately 2,600 athletes from 82 nations participated in 86 events in fifteen disciplines. Both the Olympic and Paralympic Games were organized by the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC), headed by John Furlong. The 2010 Winter Olympics were the third Olympics hosted by Canada and the first by the province of British Columbia. Canada hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, Quebec, and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta. Metro Vancouver is the largest metropolitan area to host the Winter Olympics, although Calgary is the largest city to host the Winter Olympics. They will both be surpassed by Beijing in 2022.
Following Olympic tradition, then-Vancouver mayor Sam Sullivan received the Olympic flag during the closing ceremony of the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, Italy. The flag was raised on February 28, 2006, in a special ceremony and was on display at Vancouver City Hall until the Olympic opening ceremony. The event was officially opened by Governor GeneralMichaëlle Jean, who was accompanied by the Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and International Olympic Committee president Jacques Rogge.
For the first time, Canada won gold in an official sport at an Olympic Games hosted at home, having failed to do so at both the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal and the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary (although Canada won the woman’s curling event in Calgary when it was still only a demonstration sport). Canada clinched their first gold medal on the second day of the competition and first topped the gold medal tally on the second to last day of competition and went on to become the first host nation since Norway in 1952 to lead the gold medal count. With 14, Canada broke the record for the most gold medals won at a single Winter Olympics, which was 13, set by the Soviet Union in 1976 and Norway in 2002. The United States won the most medals in total, their second time doing so at the Winter Olympics, and broke the record for the most medals won at a single Winter Olympics with 37, a record held up to then by Germany in 2002 with 36 medals. Athletes from Slovakia and Belarus won the first Winter Olympic gold medals for their nations.
Bid and preparations
Main article: Bids for the 2010 Winter Olympics
The Canadian Olympic Association chose Vancouver as the Canadian candidate city over Calgary, which sought to re-host the Games and Quebec City, which had lost the 2002 Olympic bid in 1995. On the first round of voting on November 21, 1998, Vancouver-Whistler had 26 votes, Quebec City had 25 and Calgary had 21. On December 3, 1998, the second and final round of voting occurred between the two leading contenders, which saw Vancouver win with 40 votes compared to Quebec City's 32 votes. Vancouver had also previously bid for the 1976 games, which were first awarded to Denver, then to Innsbruck and the 1980 games, which were awarded to Lake Placid.
After the bribery scandal over the candidacy of the Salt Lake City bid for the 2002 Winter Olympics (which resulted in Quebec City asking for compensation (C$8 million) for its unsuccessful bid), many of the rules of the bidding process were changed in 1999. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) created the Evaluation Commission, which was appointed on October 24, 2002. Prior to the bidding for the 2008 Summer Olympics, host cities would often fly members of the IOC to their city where they toured the city and were provided with gifts. The lack of oversight and transparency often led to allegations of money for votes. Afterward, changes brought forth by the IOC bidding rules were tightened, and more focused on technical aspects of candidate cities. The team analyzed the candidate city features and provided its input back to the IOC.
Vancouver won the bid to host the Olympics by a vote of the International Olympic Committee on July 2, 2003, at the 115th IOC Session held in Prague, Czech Republic. The result was announced by IOC President Jacques Rogge. Vancouver faced two other finalists shortlisted that same February: Pyeongchang, South Korea, and Salzburg, Austria. Pyeongchang had the most votes of the three cities in the first round of voting, in which Salzburg was eliminated. In the run-off, all but two of the members who had voted for Salzburg voted for Vancouver. It was the closest vote by the IOC since Sydney, Australia beat Beijing for the 2000 Summer Olympics by two votes. Vancouver's victory came almost two years after Toronto's 2008 Summer Olympic bid was defeated by Beijing in a landslide vote.
The Vancouver Olympic Committee (VANOC) spent C$16.6 million on upgrading facilities at Cypress Mountain, which hosted the freestyle (aerials, moguls, ski cross) and snowboarding events. With the opening in February 2009 of the C$40 million Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre at Hillcrest Park, which hosted curling, every sports venue for the 2010 Games was completed on time and at least one year prior to the Games.
In 2004, the operational cost of the 2010 Winter Olympics was estimated to be Canadian $1.354 billion (about £828,499,787, €975,033,598 or US$1,314,307,896). As of mid-2009 it was projected to be C$1.76 billion, mostly raised from non-government sources, primarily through sponsorships and the auction of national broadcasting rights. C$580 million was the taxpayer-supported budget to construct or renovate venues throughout Vancouver and Whistler. A final audit conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers released in December 2010 revealed total operation cost to have been $1.84 billion and came in on budget resulting in neither surplus nor deficit. Construction of venues also came on budget with a total cost of $603 million.
PricewaterhouseCoopers' study estimated a total contribution to the BC economy of $2.3 billion of Gross Domestic Product, and as well creating 45,000 jobs and contributing an additional $463 million to the tourism industry while venue construction by VANOC and 3rd parties added $1.22 billion to the economy, far short of the $10 billion forecast by Premier Gordon Campbell. The study also said that hosting the Olympics was one of many reasons why the provincial debt grew by $24 billion during the decade. Non direct olympics games cost (e.g. expanded rail network, highways, security, paid time off for government employees "volunteering" etc.) cost in excess of 7 billion. In 2011, the provincial auditor-general declined to conduct a post-Games audit.
C$200 million was expected to be spent for security, which was organized through a special body, the Integrated Security Unit, of which the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) was the lead agency; other government agencies such as the Vancouver Police Department, Canada Border Services Agency, Canadian Forces, and police agencies across Canada. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) also played a role. That number was later revealed to be in the region of C$1 billion, an amount in excess of five times what was originally estimated.
Main article: Venues of the 2010 Winter Olympics
Some venues, including the Richmond Olympic Oval, were at sea level, a rarity for the Winter Games. The 2010 Games were also the first—Winter or Summer—to have had an Opening Ceremony held indoors. Vancouver was the most populous city ever to hold the Winter Games. In February, the month when the Games were held, Vancouver has an average temperature of 4.8 °C (40.6 °F). The average temperature as measured at Vancouver International Airport was 7.1 °C (44.8 °F) for the month of February 2010.
The opening and closing ceremonies were held at BC Place Stadium, which received over C$150 million in major renovations. Competition venues in Greater Vancouver included the Pacific Coliseum, the Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre, the UBC Winter Sports Centre, the Richmond Olympic Oval and Cypress Mountain. GM Place, now known as Rogers Arena, played host to ice hockey events, being renamed Canada Hockey Place for the duration of the Games since corporate sponsorship is not allowed for an Olympic venue. Renovations included the removal of advertising from the ice surface and conversion of some seating to accommodate the media. The 2010 Winter Olympics marked the first time an Olympic hockey game was played on a rink sized according to NHL rules instead of international specifications. Competition venues in Whistler included Whistler Creekside at the Whistler Blackcomb ski resort, the Whistler Olympic Park, the Whistler Celebration Plaza and the Whistler Sliding Centre.
The 2010 Winter Games marked the first time that the energy consumption of the Olympic venues was tracked in real time and made available to the public. Energy data was collected from the metering and building automation systems of nine of the Olympic venues and was displayed online through the Venue Energy Tracker project.
See also: 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games mascots
Leo Obstbaum (1969–2009), the late director of design for the 2010 Winter Olympics, oversaw and designed many of the main symbols of the Games, including the mascots, medals and the design of the Olympic torches.
The 2010 Winter Olympics logo was unveiled on April 23, 2005, and is named Ilanaaq the Inunnguaq. Ilanaaq is the Inuktitut word for friend. The logo was based on the Inukshuk (stone landmark or cairn) built by Alvin Kanak for the Northwest Territories Pavilion at Expo 86 and donated to the City of Vancouver after the event. It is now used as a landmark on English Bay Beach.
The mascots for the 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games were designed by Vicki Wong and Michael C. Murphy of Meomi Design and introduced on November 27, 2007. Inspired by traditional First Nations creatures, the mascots include:
The Royal Canadian Mint produced a series of commemorative coins celebrating the 2010 Games, and in partnership with CTV allowed users to vote on the Top 10 Canadian Olympic Winter Moments; where designs honouring the top three were added to the series of coins.
Canada Post released many stamps to commemorate the Vancouver Games including, one for each of the mascots and one to celebrate the first Gold won in Canada. Many countries' postal services have also released stamps, such as the US, Germany, Australia (who present medallists with a copy of the stamps depicting their image), Austria, Belarus, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, Switzerland, Turkey and Ukraine.
Two official video games have been released to commemorate the Games: Mario and Sonic at the Olympic Winter Games was released for Wii and Nintendo DS in October 2009, while Vancouver 2010 was released in January 2010 for Xbox 360, Windows and PlayStation 3. The official theme songs for the 2010 Winter Games used by the Canada's Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium (commonly known as CTV Olympics) were "I Believe" performed by Nikki Yanofsky and "J'imagine" performed by Annie Villeneuve.
Three albums, Canada's Hockey Anthems: Sounds of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games, Sounds of Vancouver 2010: Opening Ceremony Commemorative Album, and Sounds of Vancouver 2010: Closing Ceremony Commemorative Album, composed, arranged and produced by Dave Pierce, were released to accompany the Games. Pierce's Music Direction for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies led him to win the Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Music Direction" in 2010.
See also: List of 2010 Winter Olympics broadcasters
The Olympic Games in Vancouver were broadcast worldwide by a number of television broadcasters. As rights for the 2010 Games have been packaged with those for the 2012 Summer Olympics, broadcasters were largely identical for both events.
The host broadcaster was Olympic Broadcasting Services Vancouver, a subsidiary of the IOC's new in-house broadcasting unit Olympic Broadcasting Services (OBS). The 2010 Olympics marked the first Games where the host broadcasting facilities were provided solely by OBS. The executive director of Olympic Broadcasting Services Vancouver was Nancy Lee, a former producer and executive for CBC Sports.
In Canada, the Games were the first Olympic Games broadcast by a new Olympic Broadcast Media Consortium led by CTVglobemedia and Rogers Media, displacing previous broadcaster CBC Sports. Main English-language coverage was shown on the CTV Television Network, while supplementary programming was mainly shown on TSN and Rogers Sportsnet. Main French-language coverage was shown on V and RDS.
In the United States, Associated Press (AP) announced that it would send 120 reporters, photographers, editors and videographers to cover the Games on behalf of the country's news media. The cost of their Olympics coverage prompted AP to make a "real departure for the wire service's online coverage". Rather than simply providing content, it partnered with more than 900 newspapers and broadcasters who split the ad revenue generated from an AP-produced multi-media package of video, photos, statistics, stories and a daily Webcast. AP's coverage included a microsite with web widgets facilitating integration with social networking and bookmarking services. On NBC, Bob Costas hosted the primetime telecast, while Al Michaels did so during the day. Together they co-hosted NBC's coverage of the Closing Ceremony.
In France, the Games were covered by France Télévisions, which included continuous live coverage on its website.
The official broadcast theme for the Olympic Broadcasting Services host broadcast was a piece called "City of Ice" composed by Rob May and Simon Hill.
Main article: 2010 Winter Olympics torch relay
The Olympic Torch Relay is the transfer of the Olympic flame from Ancient Olympia, Greece — where the first Olympic Games were held thousands of years ago — to the stadium of the city hosting the current Olympic Games. The flame arrives just in time for the Opening Ceremony.
For the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games, the flame was lit in Olympia on October 22, 2009. It then traveled from Greece, over the North Pole to Canada's High Arctic and on to the West Coast and Vancouver. The relay started its long Canada journey from the British Columbia capital of Victoria. In Canada, the torch traveled approximately 45,000 kilometres (28,000 mi) over 106 days, making it the longest relay route within one country in Olympic history. The Olympic Torch was carried by approximately 12,000 Canadians and reached over 1,000 communities.
Celebrity torchbearers included Arnold Schwarzenegger,Steve Nash,Matt Lauer,Justin Morneau,Michael Bublé,Bob Costas,Shania Twain, and hockey greats including Sidney Crosby,Wayne Gretzky, and the captains of the two Vancouver Canucks teams that went to the Stanley Cup Finals: Trevor Linden (1994) and Stan Smyl (1982).
Participating National Olympic Committees
82 National Olympic Committees (NOC) entered teams in the 2010 Winter Olympics. Cayman Islands, Colombia, Ghana, Montenegro, Pakistan, Peru and Serbia made their winter Olympic debuts. Also Jamaica, Mexico and Morocco returned to the Games after missing the Turin Games. Tonga sought to make its Winter Olympic debut by entering a single competitor in luge, attracting some media attention, but he crashed in the final round of qualifying. Luxembourg qualified two athletes but did not participate because one did not reach the criteria set by the NOC and the other was injured before the Games. Below is a map of the participating nations and a list of the nations with the number of competitors indicated in brackets.